# SOA EXAM P & CAS EXAM 1

## Probability Theory:

Key Concepts and Tools

for SOA Exam P & CAS Exam 1

**This books presents in a very compact way the fundamental aspects of probability theory. It provides the key concepts and tools a student needs to master the Exam P of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Exam 1 of the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS).**

This text benefits from the vision and experience of the author, who is a professor who has taught probability theory in finance, insurance, and risk management for many years. The author is also a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries.

Students interested in *econometrics, finance, statistics, mathematics, or other fields,* will also find this book a useful tool to help them further their studies.

This book can also be warmly recommended as a prerequisite reading to the students who consider taking, or are in the process of taking, the *Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) exams*. Indeed, the statistics and portfolio management material studied in the CFA syllabus is fundamentally based on the probability results shown in this book.

This text does not just present the material; it furthers an understanding of the foundations of probability theory. This book does not include exercises because it is *designed to be used with the (long) series of exercises made freely available by the Society of Actuaries.*

*The tables in the appendix link the exercises of the Society of Actuaries with the equations in the book.* These tables can be a very convenient tool for providing hints for the exercises that the student cannot solve – instead of going directly to the solutions.

The order in which the contents of this book are presented mostly respects the order of the Society of Actuaries and Casualty Actuarial Society syllabi. Very few adjustments were made to this order and they were done for pedagogical improvement reasons only.

This text is the first one in a *series* dedicated to actuarial associateship exams. In each of these books, conceptual links between the contents of the various exams are provided.

This book was also *written in such a way that you can use it throughout your career*. This book is the book the author would have liked to have when he took the Exam P of the Society of Actuaries. It contains all the formulas that are useful to solve the official exercises of the SOA. This book is *compact, theoretically solid, and not verbose. To benefit fully from this book, a mathematical background of at least one year of calculus after A-level is needed.*